OFFICIAL FMJD RULES FOR INTERNATIONAL DRAUGHTS

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The annexes written in English are juridical superior to other translations. Each federation should make a copy available to its members, either systematically or on demand, in its own language and up dated.

1. The game and the players

1.1 Draughts is a mind sport between two players[1].

1.2 The people engaging this sport are defined as the players.

1.3 Draughts can be played on an amateur as well on a professional basis.

2. The material

2.1. International draughts is played on a square board, divided into 100 equal squares, alternately black and white. This board is a draught board.

2.2. The game is played on the dark squares of the board. Thus, 50 squares are active.

2.3. The skewed lines formed by the dark squares are the diagonals. So there are 17 diagonals. The longest diagonal, which joins two corners of the board and comprises 10 squares, is called the long diagonal.

2.4. The board has to be placed between the two players in such a way that the long diagonal starts at the left hand side of each player. This way, the first square at the left hand, for each player is a dark square.

2.5. Thus positioned between the players, the board features the following items:

2.5.1. Bases: the side of the board facing each player, which are the promotion lines;

2.5.2. Sides: the squares at the side of the board, thus the first and/or the last column;

2.5.3. Rows: horizontal lines with 5 dark squares;

2.5.4. Columns: vertical lines with 5 dark squares.

2.6 The dark squares are as a convention, without actual writing numbers on the board, numbered from 1 to 50. This numbering follows the rows, from left to right, starting at the first square of the upper row and ending at the last square of the lowest row, with the following results:

2.6.1. The numbers on the bases or promotion rows are numbered 1 through 5, and 46 through 50;

2.6.2. The 5 squares of the sides, or the first and the last columns, are numbered at the left 6-16-26-36-46 and at the right 5-15-25-35-45;

2.6.3. The squares at the end of the long diagonal are numbered 5 and 46, and are called the corners of the board.

2.7. International draughts is played with 20 white or light coloured men, and 20 black or dark coloured men.

2.8. At the start of the game, the 20 black men are put on the squares with the numbers 1 to 20 and the 20 white men on those numbered 31 to 50. The squares with the numbers 21 to 30 are empty, or free.

3. The movement of the piece

3.1. A piece can be either a man or a king. 3.2. A man and a king have different ways of moving and capturing. The movement of one piece, either a man or a king, is called a "move". 3.3. The first move of a game is always for the player with the white men. The players play one move, each one at his turn, with their own pieces. 3.4. A man has to move, forwards over a diagonal, towards an empty square of the next row. 3.5: A king is a man, which reaches and stops at one of the squares of the promotion line nearest to his adversary, and is crowned with a man of the same colour. 3.6 : When a player reaches the promotion line both players may crown the man which stops at the promotion line. However if the opponent does not do this it is the obligation of the player to crown his man as part of his move. Not crowning a man promoted to King is considered an irregular move. 3.7 : A man promoted to King stays a King even if it is not crowned. Both players have the right to crown the man at a later moment (opposed to article 5.4). Playing with a King which is not yet crowned is an irregular move. 3.8. A king can move only after the opponent has played. 3.9. A king moves forwards and backwards over the successive free squares of the diagonal he occupies; thus he can come to rest, passing over free squares, on a distant free square. 3.10. The move of a piece is finished when the player has released the piece after moving it. 3.11. Whenever a player, who has the move, touches one of his playable pieces, he has to play with that piece, provided a legal move is possible. 3.12. As long as a piece during a move has not been released, the player can put it on another free square, if that is possible. 3.13. The player who has the move, and wishes to place his men more neatly on the squares, has to announce beforehand and clearly to his opponent, stating "I adjust" (or "j'adoube") 3.14. It is considered incorrect, when a player who does not have the move, touches or adjusts one or more of his men or of his opponent.

4. The capture

4.1. Capturing a piece of the opponent can be done both forwards and backwards. A capture counts as one complete move. One cannot capture one's own pieces. 4.2. Whenever a man meets, diagonally, a piece of the opponent behind which is a free square, he is obliged to jump over the opponent's piece and occupy that free square. That particular piece of the opponent is taken from the board. This total operation is the capture by a man. 4.3. When a king encounters, on the same diagonal, either close or in the distance, a piece of the opponent behind which one or more squares are empty, he is obliged to jump over it and occupy a free square by choice.i?1 This total operation is the capture by a king. 4.4. A capture has to be clearly indicated and executed in this order. Absence of a clear indication is incorrect, and rectification can be requested by the opponent. The capture is considered finished when all the opponent's captured pieces have been lifted from the board. It is obligatory to make the move and take the captured pieces from the board with one and the same hand.i?1 Using two hands for making the move and taking the captured pieces is incorrect, and rectification can be requested by the opponent. 4.5. When in the course of a capture, a man meets, diagonally, another piece of the opponent behind which is an empty square, he is obliged to jump that second piece too, even a third piece and so on, and occupy the empty square behind the last piece taken. The captured pieces are then lifted from the board, in the ascending or descending order of the capture. This total operation is a multiple capture by a man. 4.6. Whenever a king, during a capture, meets, either on the same diagonal or on one of the perpendicular diagonals, a piece of the opponent behind which are one or more empty squares, he is obliged to pass over that second piece, if needed turning a corner towards the piece that can be taken, even a third, and so on, and finally occupy one square by choice behind the last piece captured on the same diagonal. The captured pieces of the opponent are then lifted from the board, in the ascending or descending order of the capture. This total operation is a multiple capture by a king. 4.7. In the course of a multiple capture, it is forbidden to jump over one's own pieces. 4.8. In the course of a multiple capture, it is permitted to pass over the same empty square more than once, but it is forbidden to pass over the same piece of the opponent more than once. 4.9. A multiple capture has to be indicated clearly, putting the capturing piece down on the empty square after each jump and putting that piece on the final square. Absence of a clear indication is incorrect, and rectification can be requested by the opponent. 4.10. The move of a piece during a multiple capture is considered finished when the player has released his capturing piece after or during the course of the move. 4.11. The opponent's pieces can only be lifted from the board after the completion of the multiple capture. The pieces are taken from the board after the move itself, and in the ascending or descending order of the capture, without stops in between. Taking the pieces in another order or without order is considered incorrect and rectification can be requested by the opponent. 4.12. The taking of the pieces from the board is considered finished, when the player has taken all captured pieces or when he has clearly stopped during this operation. 4.13. The capture of the largest number of pieces has priority and is obligatory. In the application of this rule, the king has no priority or obligation. A king, like a man, counts as one piece. 4.14. If a choice exists between captures of equal numbers of pieces, a player is free to choose any of these possibilities, be it with a man or with a king. 4.15. Confirming article 3.5., a man who passes during a multiple capture, over a square of his opponent's promotion row, but ends on another row, remains a man at the end of the capture. 4.16 If a man captures with a man one man of the opponent, he may also do this in the following order: first removing the man of the opponent and then executing the jump.

5. Irregularities.

5.1. If during a game, the board is noted to be wrongly positioned regarding article 2.4., the game is annulled, and has to restart. 5.2. Compliance with article 2.8 has to be checked before the start of the game. For each irregularity noted during the game, article 5.4. below holds. 5.3. Each piece on a white square is inactive. It can be put into action, following the conditions of article 5.4. below. 5.4. If a player has committed one of the following irregularities, his opponent has the right to decide whether that irregularity must be rectified, or on the contrary, must be allowed to stand. 5.4.1. Playing two moves consecutively; 5.4.2. Moving a man or a king in an irregular way; 5.4.3. Touching one of one's pieces and then moving another one; 5.4.4. Taking back a move played; 5.4.5. Moving a piece of the opponent; 5.4.6. Playing a piece when a capture is possible; 5.4.7. Taking without reason one of the pieces from the board, either of the opponent or one's own; 5.4.8. Capture by a piece, of less or more than the number of possible pieces to capture; 5.4.9. Stopping during a multiple capture (released piece, see article 4.10); 5.4.10. Irregularly lifting a piece, during an unfinished multiple capture. 5.4.11. Taking, after a multiple capture, less pieces from the board, than captured; 5.4.12. Taking, after a capture, pieces that have not been jumped. 5.4.13. Stopping, during a multiple capture, in taking the pieces; 5.4.14. Taking, after a capture, one or more of onei?1s own pieces. 5.4.15. Promoting a man to King without crowning him. 5.4.16. Playing with a King which is not yet crowned. 5.4.17. Using two hands for making the move and taking the captured pieces.

5.5. If by hazard or accident the position on the board is changed, this fact is not considered an irregularity provided it is noted at the same time. 5.6. If a player refuses to comply with the Official Game Rules, his opponent has the right to force his compliance. 5.7. If a player makes a move after his opponent has committed an irregularity or has refused to comply with the Official Game Rules, that move indicates an acceptance of the situation. Then a rectification can no longer be obtained. 5.8. A partial rectification of an irregularity or a refusal cannot be tolerated.

6. The draw

6.1. A game is considered a draw when the same position occurs for the third time, with the same player having to move. 6.2. If during 25 successive moves, only the kings have moved, without any man moving or without any capture, the game is considered drawn. 6.3. If only three kings remain, two king plus a man, one king and two men, against one king, the game shall be considered a draw when the players have each played another sixteen moves maximum. 6.4. The end game with two kings, one king and a man, or one king against one king will be considered a draw when the players have each played another five moves maximum.

7. The result

7.1. There are two possible results at the end of a game: 7.1.1. A win for one of the opponents, and, by consequence, a loss for the other; 7.1.2. A draw when neither of the players has been able to win. 7.2. A player wins when his opponent: 7.2.1. resigns with or without reason; 7.2.2. has the move but cannot move a piece, as all are blocked; 7.2.3. has no pieces left; 7.2.4. refuses to comply with the rules. 7.3. A draw is obtained when: 7.3.1. both players agree to a draw by mutual consent; 7.3.2. the rules for draws in article 6 apply; 7.3.3. neither player can win.

8. Notation

8.1. The active squares are numbered 1 to 50, according to article 2.6., so it is possible to note the moves of the pieces, move by move, both for the white and the black pieces, and thus replay or transcribe a whole game. 8.2. The transcription of the moves has to follow the following convention: 8.2.1. The number of the starting square, followed by the arrival square; 8.2.2. The two numbers may be separated by a hyphen (-) in the case of a simple move; 8.2.3. The two numbers may be separated by a cross (x) in case of a capture.

9. Conventional signs.

9.1. For clarity's sake, the conventional signs used are the following: 9.1.1. to indicate a move: - ; 9.1.2. to indicate a capture: x ; 9.1.3. to qualify a strong move: ! ; 9.1.4. to qualify a very strong move: !! ; 9.1.5. to qualify a weak move: ? ; 9.1.6. to qualify a very weak move: ?? ; 9.1.7. to indicate a move that seems to be weak but in fact turns out to be strong: ?! ; 9.1.8. to indicate a move that seems to be strong but in fact turns out to be weak: !? ; 9.1.9. a forced move, with any other move resulting in a loss: * ; 9.1.10 to indicate a win: + ; 9.1.11 to indicate a draw: = ; 9.1.12 to indicate, after the last move played during a game, the number of men won: +1, +2 etc. 9.1.13 to indicate, in the same fashion, the number of men lost: - 1, -2 etc. ; 9.1.14 the sign a.l. (ad libitum) indicates choice in a capture with the same result.

10. Time control

10.1 It may be arranged, for a game, that each player has to play a certain number of moves in a given time. 10.2. In that case it is obligatory for all players: 10.2.1. to use a playing clock 10.2.2. to transcribe the whole game move by move. 10.3 It may be arranged, for a game, that each player has a certain time till the end of the game. 10.4 In that case, it is obligatory to use a playing clock, without the obligation to record the moves. 10.5 The description and the rules of use for the clock are treated in the Rules for Competitions. .

11. Variations of the game

11.1. There may be variations in the way to play a draughts game: 11.1.1 normal games on a board, between two face-to-face opponents; 11.1.2 normal games on a board, between a player who faces simultaneously a certain number of players; 11.1.3 games played by correspondence between two players who send, alternately, the moves played; 11.1.4 games between a player who does not look at a board, and also does not record the game, and a player who does have a board; 11.1.5 games between a player who does not look at a board, and also does not record the game, and simultaneously a certain number of players who do have a board; 11.1.6 games played with a blind player (or between blind players) who have a board with pieces in relief at their disposal; 11.1.7 normal games on a board, between two players of unequal force, with the strongest one starting with a handicap of one or more pieces less.

11.2. For these variations, with the exception of what is cited under article 11.1.1., specific rules and regulations are given

11.3.i?1 For the variations cited in article 11.1.3 through 11.1.5 the board is supposed to be placed between the two players.

[1] Whenever the masculine is used for a player, both male and female players are intended.